Schweitzer Formula - A Crystalline Healing Solution

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Aerobic Bacteria

Oxygen feeding micro-organisms.

Alkalize/Alkalizing

Acid/alkaline refers to the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.  The term alkalize or alkalizing in the context of health refers to the pH (parts hydrogen) in a body fluid such as urine, blood or saliva.  Foods and/or supplements have an effect on the pH of the body when ingested.  The scale is 0-14 with 7 being neutral.  The higher the measurement on this scale the higher the pH.  Specific areas and tissues have different optimal pH ranges.  Higher pH in general provides for an anti-oxidant (also known as ORP- oxygen reducing potential) potential and is protective and healing in general.  Lower pH provides for an oxidative potential and is corrosive.

 

 

Below is the Wikipedia.org definition (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH):

In chemistry, pH (/p / or /p h/) is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH very close to 7.

The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement.[1] Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode. Measurement of pH for aqueous solutions can be done with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or using indicators.

pH measurements are important in medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, nutrition, water treatment & water purification, and many other applications.

Mathematically, pH is the negative logarithm of the activity of the (solvated) hydronium ion, more often expressed as the measure of the hydronium ion concentration.[2]

Analgesic

The word analgesic derives from Greek ἀν-, "without", and ἄλγος, "pain".[1]

Source: Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesic

Anelectric

A substance incapable of being electrified by friction.

Source: Modofacto : http://mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?anelectric

Anerobic Bacteria

Non-oxygen feeding micro-organisms.

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen. In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Anionic
 
Anion
noun Physical Chemistry.
1.
a negatively charged ion, as one attracted to the anode in electrolysis.
2.
any negatively charged atom or group of atoms (opposed to cation ).
 
Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anionic
Anitiseptic

Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

Wikipedia

Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί: anti, '"against"[1] + σηπτικός: sēptikos, "putrefactive"[2]) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to be transported through the lymphatic system to destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiseptic

Antibiotics

An antibiotic is an agent that either kills or inhibits the growth of a microorganism.[1][2]

Source: Wikipedia

The term antibiotic was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman and his collaborators in journal articles to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution.[3] This definition excluded substances that kill bacteria but that are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juices and hydrogen peroxide). It also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. Many antibacterial compounds are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight of less than 2000 atomic mass units.

With advances in medicinal chemistry, most modern antibacterials are semisynthetic modifications of various natural compounds.[4] These include, for example, the beta-lactam antibiotics, which include the penicillins (produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium), the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems. Compounds that are still isolated from living organisms are the aminoglycosides, whereas other antibacterials—for example, the sulfonamides, the quinolones, and the oxazolidinones—are produced solely by chemical synthesis. In accordance with this, many antibacterial compounds are classified on the basis of chemical/biosynthetic origin into natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic. Another classification system is based on biological activity; in this classification, antibacterials are divided into two broad groups according to their biological effect on microorganisms: Bactericidal agents kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents slow down or stall bacterial growth.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotics

Betionic
Biological Pleomorphism

Pleomorphism

2. Biology The occurrence of two or more structural forms during a life cycle, especially of certain plants.

Source:  www.thefreedictionary.com/pleomorphism

 

1. the occurrence of two or more forms in the life cycle of an organism.
2. the ability of a microorganism to change shape under varying conditions.
 

Source:  www.thefreedictionary.com/pleomorphism

 

See also:  http://www.eclectichealing.com/pleomorphism.html

Boric Acid

Medical

Boric acid can be used as an antiseptic for minor burns or cuts and is sometimes used in dressings or salves. Boric acid is applied in a very dilute solution as an eye wash. Dilute boric acid can be used as a vaginal douche to treat bacterial vaginosis due to excessive alkalinity.[16] As an antibacterial compound, boric acid can also be used as an acne treatment. It is also used as prevention of athlete's foot, by inserting powder in the socks or stockings, and in solution can be used to treat some kinds of otitis externa (ear infection) in both humans and animals. The preservative in urine sample bottles in the UK is boric acid.

Boric acid solutions used as an eye wash or on abraded skin are known to be toxic, particularly to infants, especially after repeated use; this is because of its slow elimination rate.[17]

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boric_acid

Borocyl

The name given to a formula created in 1915 by physicists in Germany.  It is an amalgam of two of the three ingredients in the formula, boric acid and salicylic acid.   This was a shortened name of the more proper name that was used in the early 20th century, Zinc-Borocyl.  Zinc-Borocyl was the official name and was a combination of all three of the ingredients; zinc, boric acid and salicylic acid.

Boron

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Because boron is produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and not by stellar nucleosynthesis,[9] it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax and kernite.

Souce:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron

 

 

Health issues and toxicity

Elemental boron, boron oxide, boric acid, borates, and many organoboron compounds are non-toxic to humans and animals (approximately similar to table salt). The LD50 (dose at which there is 50% mortality) for animals is about 6 g per kg of body weight. Substances with LD50 above 2 g are considered non-toxic. The minimum lethal dose for humans has not been established. An intake of 4 g/day of boric acid was reported without incidents, but more than this is considered toxic for more than a few doses. Intakes of more than 0.5 grams per day for 50 days cause minor digestive and other problems suggestive of toxicity.[121] Single medical doses of 20 g of boric acid for neutron cap

Pharmaceutical and biological applications

Boric acid has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for this reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment.[99] Mild solutions of boric acid have been used as eye antiseptics.

Bortezomib (Velcade). Boron appears as an active element in its first-approved organic pharmaceutical in the novel pharmaceutical bortezomib, a new class of drug called the proteasome inhibitors, which are active in myeloma and one form of lymphoma (it is in currently in experimental trials against other types of lymphoma). The boron atom in bortezomib binds the catalytic site of the 26S proteasome[100] with high affinity and specificity.

Research areas

Magnesium diboride is an important superconducting material with the transition temperature of 39 K. MgB2 wires are produced with the powder-in-tube process and applied in superconducting magnets.[103][104]

Amorphous boron is used as a melting point depressant in nickel-chromium braze alloys.[105]

Hexagonal boron nitride forms atomically thin layers, which have been used to enhance the electron mobility in graphene devices.[106][107] It also forms nanotubular structures (BNNTs), which have with high strength, high chemical stability, and high thermal conductivity, among its list of desirable properties.[108]

Natural biological role

There is a boron-containing natural antibiotic, boromycin, isolated from streptomyces.[109][110] Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls. Conversely, high soil concentrations of > 1.0 ppm can cause marginal and tip necrosis in leaves as well as poor overall growth performance. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm can cause these same symptoms to appear in plants particularly sensitive to boron in the soil. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of boron in the soil, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when boron content in the soil is greater than 1.8 ppm. When this content exceeds 2.0 ppm, few plants will perform well and some may not survive. When boron levels in plant tissue exceed 200 ppm symptoms of boron toxicity are likely to appear.[111][112][113] In 2013, Steven Benner suggested it was possible that boron and molybdenum catalyzed the production of RNA on Mars with life being transported to Earth via a meteorite around 3 billion years ago.[114]

As an ultratrace element, boron is necessary for the optimal health of rats and a Boron_deficiency_(medicine) not easy to observe, although it is necessary in such small amounts that ultrapurified foods and dust filtration of air is necessary to induce boron deficiency, which manifest as poor coat or hair quality. Presumably, boron is necessary to other mammals. No deficiency syndrome in humans has been described. Small amounts of boron occur widely in the diet, and the amounts needed in the diet would, by analogy with rodent studies, be very small. The exact physiological role of boron in the animal kingdom is poorly understood.[115]

Boron occurs in all foods produced from plants. Since 1989 its nutritional value has been argued. It is thought that boron plays several biochemical roles in animals, including humans.[116] The U.S. Department of agriculture conducted an experiment in which postmenopausal women took 3 mg of boron a day. The results showed that supplemental boron reduced excretion of calcium by 44%, and activated estrogen and vitamin D, suggesting a possible role in the suppression of osteoporosis. However, whether these effects were conventionally nutritional, or medicinal, could not be determined. The U.S. National Institutes of Health states that "Total daily boron intake in normal human diets ranges from 2.1–4.3 mg boron/day."[117][118]

Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2, a rare form of corneal dystrophy, is linked to mutations in SLC4A11 gene that encodes a transporter reportedly regulating the intracellular concentration of boron.[119]

 

More from Wikipedia:

Boron compounds were known thousands of years ago. Borax was known from the deserts of western Tibet, where it received the name of tincal, derived from the Sanskrit. Borax glazes were used in China from AD300, and some tincal even reached the West, where the Persian alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān seems to mention it in AD700. Marco Polo brought some glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. Agricola, around 1600, reports the use of borax as a flux in metallurgy. In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the hot springs (soffioni) near Florence, Italy, and became known as sal sedativum, with mainly medical uses. The rare mineral is called sassolite, which is found at Sasso, Italy. Sasso was the main source of European borax from 1827 to 1872, at which date American sources replaced it.[13][14] Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap.[15]

Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy[6] and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.[5] In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes. In his subsequent experiments he used potassium to reduce boric acid instead of electrolysis. He produced enough boron to confirm a new element and named the element boracium.[6] Gay-Lussac and Thénard used iron to reduce boric acid at high temperatures. They showed by oxidizing boron with air that boric acid is an oxidation product of boron.[5][16] Jöns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824.[17] Pure boron was arguably first produced by the American chemist Ezekiel Weintraub in 1909.[18][19][20]

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron

Crystalline

Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid. In a crystal, the atoms or molecules are arranged in a regular, periodic manner. The degree of crystallinity has a big influence on hardness, density, transparency and diffusion. In a gas, the relative positions of the atoms or molecules are completely random. Amorphous materials, such as liquids and glasses, represent an intermediate case, having order over short distances (a few atomic or molecular spacings) but not over longer distances.

Many materials (such as glass-ceramics and some polymers), can be prepared in such a way as to produce a mixture of crystalline and amorphous regions. In such cases, crystallinity is usually specified as a percentage of the volume of the material that is crystalline. Even within materials that are completely crystalline, however, the degree of structural perfection can vary. For instance, most metallic alloys are crystalline, but they usually comprise many independent crystalline regions (grains or crystallites) in various orientations separated by grain boundaries; furthermore, they contain other crystal defects (notably dislocations) that reduce the degree of structural perfection. The most highly perfect crystals are silicon boules produced for semiconductor electronics; these are large single crystals (so they have no grain boundaries), are nearly free of dislocations, and have precisely controlled concentrations of defect atoms.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallinity

Distilled Water

Distilled water is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_water

Germs

For the purposes of this website germs are referred to as microorganisms, especially a pathogen; see below.

 

Germ may refer to:

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germ

Gram Positive

Gram-positive bacteria are a class of bacteria that take up the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-positive_bacteria

Growing Crystal

A crystal is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Crystal growth is a major stage of a crystallization process, and consists in the addition of new atoms, ions, or polymer strings into the characteristic arrangement of a crystalline Bravais lattice. The growth typically follows an initial stage of either homogeneous or heterogeneous (surface catalyzed) nucleation, unless a "seed" crystal, purposely added to start the growth, was already present.

The action of crystal growth yields a crystalline solid whose atoms or molecules are typically close packed, with fixed positions in space relative to each other. The crystalline state of matter is characterized by a distinct structural rigidity and virtual resistance to deformation (i.e. changes of shape and/or volume). Most crystalline solids have high values both of Young's modulus and of the shear modulus of elasticity. This contrasts with most liquids or fluids, which have a low shear modulus, and typically exhibit the capacity for macroscopic viscous flow.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_growth

Mechanisms of growth

An example of the cubic crystals typical of the rock-salt structure.
File:CitricAcid Crystalisation Timelapse.ogg
Time-lapse of growth of a citric acid crystal. The video covers an area of 2.0 by 1.5 mm and was captured over 7.2 min.

The interface between a crystal and its vapor can be molecularly sharp at temperatures well below the melting point. An ideal crystalline surface grows by the spreading of single layers, or equivalently, by the lateral advance of the growth steps bounding the layers. For perceptible growth rates, this mechanism requires a finite driving force (or degree of supercooling) in order to lower the nucleation barrier sufficiently for nucleation to occur by means of thermal fluctuations.[6] In the theory of crystal growth from the melt, Burton and Cabrera have distinguished between two major mechanisms:[7][8]

  • Non-uniform lateral growth. The surface advances by the lateral motion of steps which are one interplanar spacing in height (or some integral multiple thereof). An element of surface undergoes no change and does not advance normal to itself except during the passage of a step, and then it advances by the step height. It is useful to consider the step as the transition between two adjacent regions of a surface which are parallel to each other and thus identical in configuration — displaced from each other by an integral number of lattice planes. Note here the distinct possibility of a step in a diffuse surface, even though the step height would be much smaller than the thickness of the diffuse surface.
  • Uniform normal growth. The surface advances normal to itself without the necessity of a stepwise growth mechanism. This means that in the presence of a sufficient thermodynamic driving force, every element of surface is capable of a continuous change contributing to the advancement of the interface. For a sharp or discontinuous surface, this continuous change may be more or less uniform over large areas each successive new layer. For a more diffuse surface, a continuous growth mechanism may require change over several successive layers simultaneously.

Non-uniform lateral growth is a geometrical motion of steps — as opposed to motion of the entire surface normal to itself. Alternatively, uniform normal growth is based on the time sequence of an element of surface. In this mode, there is no motion or change except when a step passes via a continual change. The prediction of which mechanism will be operative under any set of given conditions is fundamental to the understanding of crystal growth. Two criteria have been used to make this prediction:

  • Whether or not the surface is diffuse. A diffuse surface is one in which the change from one phase to another is continuous, occurring over several atomic planes. This is in contrast to a sharp surface for which the major change in property (e.g. density or composition) is discontinuous, and is generally confined to a depth of one interplanar distance.[9][10]
  • Whether or not the surface is singular. A singular surface is one in which the surface tension as a function of orientation has a pointed minimum. Growth of singular surfaces is known to requires steps, whereas it is generally held that non-singular surfaces can continuously advance normal to themselves.[11]

Morphology


Silver sulfide whiskers growing out of surface-mount resistors.

It is generally believed that the mechanical and other properties of the crystal are also pertinent to the subject matter, and that crystal morphology provides the missing link between growth kinetics and physical properties. The necessary thermodynamic apparatus was provided by Josiah Willard Gibbs'study of heterogeneous equilibrium. He provided a clear definition of surface energy, by which the concept of surface tension is made applicable to solids as well as liquids. He also appreciated that an anisotropic surface free energy implied a non-spherical equilibrium shape, which should be thermodynamically defined as the shape which minimizes the total surface free energy.[12]

It may be instructional to note that whisker growth provides the link between the mechanical phenomenon of high strength in whiskers and the various growth mechanisms which are responsible for their fibrous morphologies. (Prior to the discovery of carbon nanotubes, single-crystal whiskers had the highest tensile strength of any materials known). Some mechanisms produce defect-free whiskers, while others may have single screw dislocations along the main axis of growth — producing high strength whiskers.

The mechanism behind whisker growth is not well understood, but seems to be encouraged by compressive mechanical stresses including mechanically induced stresses, stresses induced by diffusion of different elements, and thermally induced stresses. Metal whiskers differ from metallic dendrites in several respects. Dendrites are fern-shaped like the branches of a tree, and grow across the surface of the metal. In contrast, whiskers are fibrous and project at a right angle to the surface of growth, or substrate.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_growth

Healing Crisis

What is termed a healing crisis is related to the process of detoxification.  This can actually be on a physical, emotional or energetic level.  For the purposes of this defintion we will stick to the physical level of biology. 

The classic case is when the body is trying to expel more toxins than can be eliminated through the normal channels for elimination such as the GI tract, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs and skin.  This causes a back-up of toxins that get recirculated throughout the body and can lead to uncomfortable symptoms such as nausea, poor coordination, malaise, fever, fatigue, etc. 

This is also referred to as a "Herxheimer Reaction" in the medical lexicon.

Healing Response
Immune Response

The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system

Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms,[1] including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.[2][3] Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.

Source: 

Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms,[1] including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.[2][3] Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.

Infrared Heat

Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (nm) to 1 mm. This range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of approximately 430 THz down to 300 GHz.[1] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared.

Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by astronomer William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the light spectrum beyond red light (infra Latin means "under"), by means of its effect upon a thermometer. Slightly more than half of the total energy from the Sun was eventually found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared. The balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared

Light comparison[4]
NameWavelengthFrequency (Hz)Photon Energy (eV)
Gamma ray less than 0.01 nm more than 30 EHz 124 keV – 300+ GeV
X-Ray 0.01 nm – 10 nm 30 EHz – 30 PHz 124 eV  – 124 keV
Ultraviolet 10 nm – 380 nm 30 PHz – 790 THz 3.3 eV – 124 eV
Visible 380 nm–700 nm 790 THz – 430 THz 1.7 eV – 3.3 eV
Infrared 700 nm – 1 mm 430 THz – 300 GHz 1.24 meV – 1.7 eV
Microwave 1 mm – 1 meter 300 GHz – 300 MHz 1.24 µeV – 1.24 meV
Radio 1 mm – 100,000 km 300 GHz3 Hz 12.4 feV – 1.24 meV

 

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared

Mucous Membranes

The mucous membranes (or mucosae or mucosas; singular mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which are involved in absorption and secretion. They line cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs. They are at several places contiguous with skin: at the nostrils, the lips of the mouth, the eyelids, the ears, the genital area, and the anus. The sticky, thick fluid secreted by some mucous membranes and glands is termed mucus.

The glans clitoridis and the clitoral hood, as well as the glans penis (the head of the penis) and the inner layer of the foreskin, are all mucous membranes. The urethra is also a mucous membrane. The secreted mucus traps the pathogens in the body, preventing any further activities of diseases.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucous_membrane

Mutation

In genetics, a mutation is a change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element. Mutations result from unrepaired damage to DNA or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements.[1][2][3] Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system.

Mutation can result in several different types of change in sequences. Mutations in genes can either have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely. Mutations can also occur in nongenic regions. One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial.[4] Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on genes, organisms have mechanisms such as DNA repair to prevent or correct (revert the mutated sequence back to its original state) mutations.[1]

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutation

Negative Ions

Ions

Characteristics

Ions in their gas-like state are highly reactive, and do not occur in large amounts on Earth, except in flames, lightning, electrical sparks, and other plasmas. These gas-like ions rapidly interact with ions of opposite charge to give neutral molecules or ionic salts. Ions are also produced in the liquid or solid state when salts interact with solvents (for example, water) to produce "solvated ions," which are more stable, for reasons involving a combination of energy and entropy changes as the ions move away from each other to interact with the liquid. These stabilized species are more commonly found in the environment at low temperatures. A common example is the ions present in seawater, which are derived from the dissolved salts.

All ions are charged, which means that like all charged objects they are:

  • attracted to opposite electric charges (positive to negative, and vice versa),
  • repelled by like charges
  • when moving, travel in trajectories that are deflected by a magnetic field.

Electrons, due to their smaller mass and thus larger space-filling properties as matter waves, determine the size of atoms and molecules that possess any electrons at all. Thus, anions (negatively charged ions) are larger than the parent molecule or atom, as the excess electron(s) repel each other, and add to the physical size of the ion, because its size is determined by its electron cloud. As such, in general, cations are smaller than the corresponding parent atom or molecule due to the smaller size of its electron cloud. One particular cation (that of hydrogen) contains no electrons, and thus is very much smaller than the parent hydrogen atom.

Non Toxic

 

nontoxic (nɒnˈtɒksɪk)

adj
1. not of, relating to, or caused by a toxin or poison: safe, nontoxic paint.
   

non•tox•ic (nɒnˈtɒk sɪk)

adj.

1. not toxic; not containing or caused by a toxin or poison: nontoxic prescription drugs; a nontoxic illness.
2. not capable of causing harm.
[1945–50]

 

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/nontoxic

Osmotic Solution

Osmosis is a special case of passive transport. In osmosis water diffuses from a hypotonic (low solute concentrated) solution to a hypertonic (high solute concentrated) solution. Generally speaking, the direction of water flow is determined by the solute concentration and not by the "nature" of the solute molecules themselves. If the blood cells in the image above are placed in salt water solutions of different concentrations, the following will occur:

Source:  http://biology.about.com/od/cellularprocesses/ss/diffusion_3.htm

Oxygen Therapy
pH
Phagocytic Cell
Planck's Constant

The Planck constant (denoted h, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics. Published in 1900, it originally described the proportionality constant between the energy (E) of a charged atomic oscillator in the wall of a black body, and the frequency (ν) of its associated electromagnetic wave. Its relevance is now integral to the field of quantum mechanics, describing the relationship between energy and frequency, commonly known as the Planck relation:

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_constant

Plank's Constant
Reduction-Oxidation (Redox)

Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide (CO
2
) or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.

The term "redox" comes from two concepts involved with electron transfer: reduction and oxidation.[1] It can be explained in simple terms:

  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
  • Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redox

Salicylic Acid/Salicylate

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree, from the bark of which the substance used to be obtained) is a monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone. It is derived from the metabolism of salicin. In addition to being an important active metabolite of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which acts in part as a prodrug to salicylic acid, it is probably best known for its use in anti-acne treatments. The salts and esters of salicylic acid are known as salicylates.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylic_acid

Salicylic acid has the formula C6H4(OH)COOH, where the OH group is ortho to the carboxyl group. It is also known as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. It is poorly soluble in water (2 g/L at 20 °C).[3] Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) can be prepared by the esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group of salicylic acid with the acetyl group from acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylic_acid

Side Chain Theory of Immunology

Side-chain theory (German, Seitenkettentheorie) is a theory proposed by Paul Ehrlich (1854–1915) to explain the immune response in living cells. Ehrlich theorized from very early in his career that chemical structure could be used to explain why the immune response occurred in reaction to infection. He believed that toxins and antitoxins were chemical substances at a time when very little was known about their nature.

Ehrlich supposed that living cells have side-chains in the same way dyes have side-chains which are related to their coloring properties. These side chains can link with a particular toxin, just as Emil Fischer said enzymes must bind to their receptors "like a key in a lock."

Ehrlich theorized that a cell under threat grew additional side-chains to bind the toxin, and that these additional side chains broke off to become the antibodies that are circulated through the body. It was these antibodies that Ehrlich first described as "magic bullets" in search of toxins.

In an attempt to explain the origin of serum antibody, Ehrlich proposed that cells in the blood expressed a variety of receptors, which he called “side-chain receptors,” that could react with infectious agents and inactivate them. Borrowing a concept used by Emil Fischer in 1894 to explain the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate, Ehrlich proposed that binding of the receptor to an infectious agent was like the fit between a lock and key. Ehrlich suggested that interaction between an infectious agent and a cell-bound receptor would induce the cell to produce and release more receptors with the same specificity. According to Ehrlich’s theory, the specificity of the receptor was determined before its exposure to antigen, and the antigen selected the appropriate receptor. Ultimately all aspects of Ehrlich’s theory would be proven correct with the minor exception that the “receptor” exists as both a soluble antibody molecule and as a cell-bound receptor; it is the soluble form that is secreted rather than the bound form released. Reference(Kuby Immunology)

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-chain_theory

Speed of Light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is exactly 299,792,458 metres per second, a figure that is exact because the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time.[1] This is, to three significant figures, 186,000 miles per second, or about 671 million miles per hour. According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all energy, matter, and information in the universe can travel. It is the speed at which all massless particles and associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as light) travel in vacuum. It is also the speed of gravity (i.e. of gravitational waves) predicted by current theories. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial frame of reference of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.[2]

The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c. The ratio between c and the speed v at which light travels in a material is called the refractive index n of the material (n = c / v). For example, for visible light the refractive index of glass is typically around 1.5, meaning that light in glass travels at c / 1.5 ≈ 200000 km/s; the refractive index of air for visible light is 1.000293, so the speed of light in air is 299705 km/s or about 88 km/s slower than c.

 

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light

In most practical cases, light and other electromagnetic waves can be thought of as moving "instantaneously", but for long distances and very sensitive measurements their finite speed has noticeable effects. For example, in videos of an intense lightning storm on the Earth's surface taken from the International Space Station, the expansion of light wavefronts from individual flashes of lightning is clearly visible, and allows estimates of the speed of light to be made from frame-to-frame analysis of the position of the light wavefront. This is not surprising, as the time for light to propagate completely around the Earth is of the order of 140 milliseconds. This transit time is what causes the Schumann resonance. In communicating with distant space probes, it can take minutes to hours for a message to get from Earth to the spacecraft, or vice versa. The light we see from stars left them many years ago, allowing us to study the history of the universe by looking at distant objects. The finite speed of light also limits the theoretical maximum speed of computers, since information must be sent within the computer from chip to chip. Finally, the speed of light can be used with time of flight measurements to measure large distances to high precision.

Ole Rømer first demonstrated in 1676 that light travelled at a finite speed (as opposed to instantaneously) by studying the apparent motion of Jupiter's moon Io. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell proposed that light was an electromagnetic wave, and therefore travelled at the speed c appearing in his theory of electromagnetism.[3] In 1905, Albert Einstein postulated that the speed of light with respect to any inertial frame is independent of the motion of the light source,[4] and explored the consequences of that postulate by deriving the special theory of relativity and showing that the parameter c had relevance outside of the context of light and electromagnetism. After centuries of increasingly precise measurements, in 1975 the speed of light was known to be 299792458 m/s with a measurement uncertainty of 4 parts per billion. In 1983, the metre was redefined in the International System of Units (SI) as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. As a result, the numerical value of c in metres per second is now fixed exactly by the definition of the metre.[5]

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light

Surfactant

Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surfactant

Thermotherapy

The way this term, on this website, is referring to an older defintion of the word that was being used in the late 1800's and early part of the 1900's.  The term today is used to indicate heat therapy, while 100 years ago it was being used to indicate non-heat chemical process. 

The term is employed on this site simply to convey the historical context and how Schweitzer Formula was discussed and articulated at the time.

Topical

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions and ointments.[1]

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topical_medication

Unified Field Theory

In physics, a unified field theory (UFT), occasionally referred to as a uniform field theory,[1] is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field. There is no accepted unified field theory, and thus it remains an open line of research. The term was coined by Einstein, who attempted to unify the general theory of relativity with electromagnetism. The "theory of everything" and Grand Unified Theory are closely related to unified field theory, but differ by not requiring the basis of nature to be fields, and often by attempting to explain physical constants of nature.

This article describes unified field theory as it is currently understood in connection with quantum theory. Earlier attempts based on classical physics are described in the article on classical unified field theories.

Source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_field_theory

According to the current understanding of physics, forces are not transmitted directly between objects, but instead are described by intermediary entities called fields. All four of the known fundamental forces are mediated by fields, which in the Standard Model of particle physics result from exchange of gauge bosons. Specifically the four interactions to be unified are:

Modern unified field theory attempts to bring these four interactions together into a single framework.

Source: 

According to the current understanding of physics, forces are not transmitted directly between objects, but instead are described by intermediary entities called fields. All four of the known fundamental forces are mediated by fields, which in the Standard Model of particle physics result from exchange of gauge bosons. Specifically the four interactions to be unified are:

Modern unified field theory attempts to bring these four interactions together into a single framework.

Universal Disinfectant

This term simply refers to an agent that destroys or dissolves infectious pathogenic organisms.

Universal Solvent
Wet Electrons

Wet electrons, which occur on the surface of metal oxides, are a transition state for electrons between the solid and liquid states of matter. Wet electrons are attracted to positively-charged hydroxide ions which form on oxide surfaces in the presence of atmospheric moisture. These electrons in turn affect the interaction of other materials with the oxide.[1]

Source: Wikipedia

Hydrogen atoms on water or hydroxide (OH) can be involved in hydrogen bonds or be dangling. Wet electrons are primarily stabilized by the dangling atoms on OH, which is more acidic than water, but the dangling atoms on water also contribute to the stabilization. The process is akin to following the lowest elevation path between valleys with a mountain between them. The minimum energy necessary to change an electron from the solid to the liquid state corresponds to going through the wet electron state. Wet electrons are a transition state (saddle point) between electrons in the liquid and solid states.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet_electrons

Zinc

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest mineable amounts are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning).

Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC in Judea[1] and by the 7th century BC in Ancient Greece.[2] Zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 12th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to 6th Century BC.[3] To date the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, Rajasthan as early as 9th century AD, when distillation process was employed to make pure zinc.[4] Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow."

The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is normally given credit for discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys, such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.

Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance".[5] Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases.[6] In children it causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea, contributing to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year.[5] Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans.[7] Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.

Souce:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc

Zinc-Borocyl

The name given to the formula C14H10BO7.2Zn that was discovered in the first few years of the 20th century. 

 

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